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Nerve-stimulator-guided Nerve Blocks

In the era before ultrasound, nerve stimulation techniques were widely and exclusively used for single-injection and continuous nerve block. Ultrasound has mostly replaced nerve stimulation for single injection nerve blocks, but there are situations where ultrasound is not available and there are practitioners who prefer to use nerve stimulation. The editorial board is of strong opinion that the "dual technique" of placing the needle with ultrasound and then the catheter for continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) with nerve stimulation is the only technique that will consistently place the catheter tip in the sub-circumneural space (See microanatomy section) and thus prevent the unacceptably high prevalence of secondary block failure with ultrasound-only placement of catheters for CPNB.
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